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Many companies manufacture and distribute tennis rackets. Wilson, Head and Babolat are some of the more commonly used brands; however, many more companies exist.

Tennis balls were originally made of cloth strips stitched together with thread and stuffed with feathers. Traditionally white, the predominant colour was gradually changed to optic yellow in the latter part of the 20th century to allow for improved visibility.

Tennis balls must conform to certain criteria for size, weight, deformation , and bounce to be approved for regulation play. Balls must weigh between Although the process of producing the balls has remained virtually unchanged for the past years, the majority of manufacturing now takes place in the Far East.

The relocation is due to cheaper labour costs and materials in the region. Advanced players improve their performance through a number of accoutrements.

Vibration dampeners may be interlaced in the proximal part of the string array for improved feel. Racket handles may be customized with absorbent or rubber-like materials to improve the players' grip.

Players often use sweat bands on their wrists to keep their hands dry and head bands or bandanas to keep the sweat out of their eyes as well.

Finally, although the game can be played in a variety of shoes, specialized tennis shoes have wide, flat soles for stability and a built-up front structure to avoid excess wear.

Tennis is played on a rectangular, flat surface. The court is 78 feet A net is stretched across the full width of the court, parallel with the baselines, dividing it into two equal ends.

It is held up by either a metal cable or cord that can be no more than 0. The modern tennis court owes its design to Major Walter Clopton Wingfield.

This template was modified in to the court design that exists today, with markings similar to Wingfield's version, but with the hourglass shape of his court changed to a rectangle.

Tennis is unusual in that it is played on a variety of surfaces. Occasionally carpet is used for indoor play, with hardwood flooring having been historically used.

Artificial turf courts can also be found. The lines that delineate the width of the court are called the baseline farthest back and the service line middle of the court.

The short mark in the center of each baseline is referred to as either the hash mark or the center mark. The outermost lines that make up the length are called the doubles sidelines.

These are the boundaries used when doubles is being played. The lines to the inside of the doubles sidelines are the singles sidelines and are used as boundaries in singles play.

The area between a doubles sideline and the nearest singles sideline is called the doubles alley, which is considered playable in doubles play. The line that runs across the center of a player's side of the court is called the service line because the serve must be delivered into the area between the service line and the net on the receiving side.

Despite its name, this is not where a player legally stands when making a serve. The line dividing the service line in two is called the center line or center service line.

The boxes this center line creates are called the service boxes; depending on a player's position, he or she will have to hit the ball into one of these when serving.

The players or teams start on opposite sides of the net. One player is designated the server , and the opposing player is the receiver.

The choice to be server or receiver in the first game and the choice of ends is decided by a coin toss before the warm-up starts.

Service alternates game by game between the two players or teams. For each point, the server starts behind the baseline, between the center mark and the sideline.

The receiver may start anywhere on their side of the net. When the receiver is ready, the server will serve , although the receiver must play to the pace of the server.

In a legal service, the ball travels over the net without touching it and into the diagonally opposite service box.

If the ball hits the net but lands in the service box, this is a let or net service , which is void, and the server retakes that serve.

The player can serve any number of let services in a point and they are always treated as voids and not as faults. A fault is a serve that falls long or wide of the service box, or does not clear the net.

There is also a "foot fault", which occurs when a player's foot touches the baseline or an extension of the center mark before the ball is hit.

If the second service is also a fault, the server double faults, and the receiver wins the point. However, if the serve is in, it is considered a legal service.

A legal service starts a rally , in which the players alternate hitting the ball across the net. A legal return consists of the player or team hitting the ball before it has bounced twice or hit any fixtures except the net, provided that it still falls in the server's court.

A player or team cannot hit the ball twice in a row. The ball must travel past the net into the other players' court.

A ball that hits the net during a rally is still considered a legal return as long as it crosses into the opposite side of the court.

The first player or team to fail to make a legal return loses the point. The server then moves to the other side of the service line at the start of a new point.

A game consists of a sequence of points played with the same player serving. A game is won by the first player to have won at least four points in total and at least two points more than the opponent.

The running score of each game is described in a manner peculiar to tennis: If at least three points have been scored by each player, making the player's scores equal at 40 apiece, the score is not called out as "", but rather as " deuce ".

If at least three points have been scored by each side and a player has one more point than his opponent, the score of the game is " advantage " for the player in the lead.

During informal games, " advantage " can also be called " ad in " or " van in " when the serving player is ahead, and " ad out " or " van out " when the receiving player is ahead.

The score of a tennis game during play is always read with the serving player's score first. In tournament play, the chair umpire calls the point count e.

At the end of a game, the chair umpire also announces the winner of the game and the overall score. A set consists of a sequence of games played with service alternating between games, ending when the count of games won meets certain criteria.

Typically, a player wins a set by winning at least six games and at least two games more than the opponent. If one player has won six games and the opponent five, an additional game is played.

If the leading player wins that game, the player wins the set 7—5. If the trailing player wins the game tying the set 6—6 a tie-break is played.

A tie-break, played under a separate set of rules, allows one player to win one more game and thus the set, to give a final set score of 7—6.

A "love" set means that the loser of the set won zero games, colloquially termed a 'jam donut' in the USA. The final score in sets is always read with the winning player's score first, e.

A match consists of a sequence of sets. The outcome is determined through a best of three or five sets system. On the professional circuit, men play best-of-five-set matches at all four Grand Slam tournaments, Davis Cup, and the final of the Olympic Games and best-of-three-set matches at all other tournaments, while women play best-of-three-set matches at all tournaments.

The first player to win two sets in a best-of-three, or three sets in a best-of-five, wins the match. In these cases, sets are played indefinitely until one player has a two-game lead, leading to some remarkably long matches.

In tournament play, the chair umpire announces the end of the match with the well-known phrase " Game, set, match " followed by the winning person's or team's name.

A game point occurs in tennis whenever the player who is in the lead in the game needs only one more point to win the game.

The terminology is extended to sets set point , matches match point , and even championships championship point. For example, if the player who is serving has a score of love, the player has a triple game point triple set point, etc.

Game points, set points, and match points are not part of official scoring and are not announced by the chair umpire in tournament play. A break point occurs if the receiver, not the server , has a chance to win the game with the next point.

Break points are of particular importance because serving is generally considered advantageous, with servers being expected to win games in which they are serving.

A receiver who has one score of 30—40 or advantage , two score of 15—40 or three score of love consecutive chances to win the game has break point , double break point or triple break point , respectively.

If the receiver does, in fact, win their break point, the game is awarded to the receiver, and the receiver is said to have converted their break point.

If the receiver fails to win their break point it is called a failure to convert. Winning break points, and thus the game, is also referred to as breaking serve , as the receiver has disrupted, or broken the natural advantage of the server.

If in the following game the previous server also wins a break point it is referred to as breaking back. Except where tie-breaks apply, at least one break of serve is required to win a set.

Another, however informal, tennis format is called Canadian doubles. This involves three players, with one person playing a doubles team.

The single player gets to utilize the alleys normally reserved only for a doubles team. Conversely, the doubles team does not use the alleys when executing a shot.

The scoring is the same as a regular game. This format is not sanctioned by any official body. As such, each player plays doubles and singles over the course of a match, with the singles player always serving.

Scoring styles vary, but one popular method is to assign a value of 2 points to each game, with the server taking both points if he or she holds serve and the doubles team each taking one if they break serve.

Wheelchair tennis can be played by able-bodied players as well as people who require a wheelchair for mobility.

An extra bounce is permitted. This rule makes it possible to have mixed wheelchair and able-bodied matches. It is possible for a doubles team to consist of a wheelchair player and an able-bodied player referred to as "one-up, one-down" , or for a wheelchair player to play against an able-bodied player.

In such cases, the extra bounce is permitted for the wheelchair users only. In most professional play and some amateur competition, there is an officiating head judge or chair umpire usually referred to as the umpire , who sits in a raised chair to one side of the court.

The umpire has absolute authority to make factual determinations. The umpire may be assisted by line judges, who determine whether the ball has landed within the required part of the court and who also call foot faults.

There also may be a net judge who determines whether the ball has touched the net during service. The umpire has the right to overrule a line judge or a net judge if the umpire is sure that a clear mistake has been made.

In some tournaments, line judges who would be calling the serve, were assisted by electronic sensors that beeped to indicate the serve was out.

This system was called " Cyclops ". The referee, who is usually located off the court, is the final authority about tennis rules. When called to the court by a player or team captain, the referee may overrule the umpire's decision if the tennis rules were violated question of law but may not change the umpire's decision on a question of fact.

If, however, the referee is on the court during play, the referee may overrule the umpire's decision This would only happen in Davis Cup or Fed Cup matches, not at the World Group level, when a chair umpire from a non-neutral country is in the chair.

Ball boys and girls may be employed to retrieve balls, pass them to the players, and hand players their towels. They have no adjudicative role.

In rare events e. The umpire may consider their statements when making a decision. In some leagues, especially junior leagues, players make their own calls, trusting each other to be honest.

This is the case for many school and university level matches. The referee or referee's assistant, however, can be called on court at a player's request, and the referee or assistant may change a player's call.

In unofficiated matches, a ball is out only if the player entitled to make the call is sure that the ball is out.

In tennis, a junior is a player under 18 who is still legally protected by a parent or guardian. Players on the main adult tour who are under 18 must have documents signed by a parent or guardian.

These players, however, are still eligible to play in junior tournaments. Most juniors who enter the international circuit do so by progressing through ITF, Satellite, Future, and Challenger tournaments before entering the main circuit.

The latter three circuits also have adults competing in them. In , the ITF implemented a new rankings scheme to encourage greater participation in doubles, by combining two rankings singles and doubles into one combined tally.

Juniors may earn income from tennis by participating in the Future, Satellite, or Challenger tours. Tournaments are broken up into different tiers offering different amounts of ranking points, culminating with Grade A.

Leading juniors are allowed to participate for their nation in the Junior Fed Cup and Davis Cup competitions. To succeed in tennis often means having to begin playing at a young age.

To facilitate and nurture a junior's growth in tennis, almost all tennis playing nations have developed a junior development system. Juniors develop their play through a range of tournaments on all surfaces, accommodating all different standards of play.

Talented juniors may also receive sponsorships from governing bodies or private institutions. A tennis match is intended to be continuous.

In most cases, service is required to occur no more than 20 seconds after the end of the previous point.

Should a player be determined to be stalling repeatedly, the chair umpire may initially give a warning followed by subsequent penalties of "point", "game", and default of the match for the player who is consistently taking longer than the allowed time limit.

In the event of a rain delay, darkness or other external conditions halting play, the match is resumed at a later time, with the same score as at the time of the delay, and the players at the same end of the court when rain halted play, or at the same position north or south if play is resumed on a different court.

Balls wear out quickly in serious play and, therefore, in ATP and WTA tournaments, they are changed after every nine games with the first change occurring after only seven games, because the first set of balls is also used for the pre-match warm-up.

Continuity of the balls' condition is considered part of the game, so if a re-warm-up is required after an extended break in play usually due to rain , then the re-warm-up is done using a separate set of balls, and use of the match balls is resumed only when play resumes.

A recent rule change is to allow coaching on court on a limited basis during a match. A competent tennis player has eight basic shots in his or her repertoire: A grip is a way of holding the racket in order to hit shots during a match.

The grip affects the angle of the racket face when it hits the ball and influences the pace, spin, and placement of the shot.

Players use various grips during play, including the Continental The "Handshake Grip" , Eastern Can be either semi-eastern or full eastern. Usually used for backhands.

Most players change grips during a match depending on what shot they are hitting; for example, slice shots and serves call for a Continental grip.

A serve or, more formally, a "service" in tennis is a shot to start a point. The serve is initiated by tossing the ball into the air and hitting it usually near the apex of its trajectory into the diagonally opposite service box without touching the net.

The serve may be hit under- or overhand although underhand serving remains a rarity. There can also be a let if the server serves the ball and the receiver isn't prepared.

Experienced players strive to master the conventional overhand serve to maximize its power and placement. The server may employ different types of serve including flat serve, topspin serve, slice serve, and kick American twist serve.

A reverse type of spin serve is hit in a manner that spins the ball opposite the natural spin of the server, the spin direction depending upon right- or left-handedness.

If the ball is spinning counterclockwise, it will curve right from the hitter's point of view and curve left if spinning clockwise.

Some servers are content to use the serve simply to initiate the point; however, advanced players often try to hit a winning shot with their serve.

A winning serve that is not touched by the opponent is called an "ace". For a right-handed player, the forehand is a stroke that begins on the right side of the body, continues across the body as contact is made with the ball, and ends on the left side of the body.

There are various grips for executing the forehand, and their popularity has fluctuated over the years. The most important ones are the continental , the eastern , the semi-western , and the western.

For a number of years, the small, frail s player Bill Johnston was considered by many to have had the best forehand of all time, a stroke that he hit shoulder-high using a western grip.

Few top players used the western grip after the s, but in the latter part of the 20th century, as shot-making techniques and equipment changed radically, the western forehand made a strong comeback and is now used by many modern players.

No matter which grip is used, most forehands are generally executed with one hand holding the racket, but there have been fine players with two-handed forehands.

Players such as Monica Seles or France's Fabrice Santoro and Marion Bartoli are also notable players known for their two-handed forehands. For right-handed players, the backhand is a stroke that begins on the left side of their body, continues across their body as contact is made with the ball, and ends on the right side of their body.

It can be executed with either one hand or with both and is generally considered more difficult to master than the forehand. For most of the 20th century, the backhand was performed with one hand, using either an eastern or a continental grip.

The first notable players to use two hands were the s Australians Vivian McGrath and John Bromwich , but they were lonely exceptions.

The two-handed grip gained popularity in the s as Björn Borg , Chris Evert , Jimmy Connors , and later Mats Wilander and Marat Safin used it to great effect, and it is now used by a large number of the world's best players, including Rafael Nadal and Serena Williams.

Two hands give the player more control, while one hand can generate a slice shot, applying backspin on the ball to produce a low trajectory bounce.

Reach is also limited with the two-handed shot. The player long considered to have had the best backhand of all time, Don Budge , had a powerful one-handed stroke in the s and s that imparted topspin onto the ball.

Ken Rosewall , another player noted for his one-handed backhand, used a very accurate slice backhand through the s and s. A small number of players, notably Monica Seles , use two hands on both the backhand and forehand sides.

A volley is a shot returned to the opponent in mid-air before the ball bounces, generally performed near the net, and is usually made with a stiff-wristed punching motion to hit the ball into an open area of the opponent's court.

The half volley is made by hitting the ball on the rise just after it has bounced, also generally in the vicinity of the net, and played with the racket close to the ground.

It is an offensive shot used to take preparation time away from the opponent, as it returns the ball into the opponent's court much faster than a standard volley.

From a poor defensive position on the baseline, the lob can be used as either an offensive or defensive weapon, hitting the ball high and deep into the opponent's court to either enable the lobber to get into better defensive position or to win the point outright by hitting it over the opponent's head.

If the lob is not hit deeply enough into the other court, however, an opponent near the net may then hit an overhead smash , a hard, serve-like shot, to try to end the point.

A difficult shot in tennis is the return of an attempted lob over the backhand side of a player. When the contact point is higher than the reach of a two-handed backhand, most players will try to execute a high slice under the ball or sideways.

Fewer players attempt the backhand sky-hook or smash. Rarely, a player will go for a high topspin backhand, while themselves in the air.

A successful execution of any of these alternatives requires balance and timing, with less margin of error than the lower contact point backhands, since this shot is a break in the regular pattern of play.

If an opponent is deep in his court, a player may suddenly employ an unexpected drop shot , by softly tapping the ball just over the net so that the opponent is unable to run in fast enough to retrieve it.

Advanced players will often apply back spin to a drop shot, causing the ball to "skid" upon landing and bounce sideways, with less forward momentum toward their opponent, or even backwards towards the net, thus making it even more difficult to return.

Muscle strain is one of the most common injuries in tennis. Muscle , cartilage , nerves , bursae , ligaments and tendons may be damaged from overuse.

The repetitive use of a particular muscle without time for repair and recovery is the most common cause of injury.

Tournaments are often organized by gender and number of players. Common tournament configurations include men's singles, women's singles, and doubles, where two players play on each side of the net.

Tournaments may be organized for specific age groups, with upper age limits for youth and lower age limits for senior players.

There are also tournaments for players with disabilities, such as wheelchair tennis and deaf tennis. Most large tournaments seed players, but players may also be matched by their skill level.

According to how well a person does in sanctioned play, a player is given a rating that is adjusted periodically to maintain competitive matches.

Average club players under this system would rate 3. The four Grand Slam tournaments are considered to be the most prestigious tennis events in the world.

Aside from the historical significance of these events, they also carry larger prize funds than any other tour event and are worth double the number of ranking points to the champion than in the next echelon of tournaments, the Masters men and Premier events women.

There are , more than any other professional tennis tournament. This draw is composed of 32 seeded players, other players ranked in the world's top , qualifiers, and players who receive invitations through wild cards.

Grand Slam men's tournaments have best-of-five set matches while the women play best-of-three. Grand Slam tournaments are among the small number of events that last two weeks, the others being the Indian Wells Masters and the Miami Masters.

Currently, the Grand Slam tournaments are the only tour events that have mixed doubles contests.

Grand Slam tournaments are held in conjunction with wheelchair tennis tournaments and junior tennis competitions.

These tournaments also contain their own idiosyncrasies. In the three stands were joined at the corners to form a continuous structure.

The stands were considerably enlarged in and in a new stand B was constructed increasing capacity by seats. In the seating capacity was increased from 2, to 3, and this remained unchanged until the move to the new ground at Church Road.

The original centre court roof from , which partly covers the stands, has been modified several times. In , it was raised by one metre to allow the capacity to be increased by 1, A full retractable roof see below was completed in , and capacity increased to 15, by adding six rows of seats to the upper tier on the east, north, and west sides.

New media facilities, scoreboards including video, and commentary boxes were built to replace those currently in the upper tier. New wider seats were installed and new additional stairs and lifts were added.

After many years of debate by players, fans, media and officials that often occurred during rain delays, the All England Club finally decided to build a retractable roof to cover the entire court.

Building work began with the removal of the existing roof over the stands at the end of the championships. The completed retractable roof structure was ready for the Championships , being unveiled in April and tested with a capacity audience during an exhibition match on 17 May , featuring Andre Agassi , Steffi Graf , Tim Henman , and Kim Clijsters subsequently returning from retirement.

The roof takes up to 10 minutes to close, during which time play is suspended. However, the time to transfer from outside to inside play can be up to 45 minutes while the air-conditioning system acclimatises the nearly 15,seat stadium for indoor-grass competition.

The roof was closed for the first time during a competitive Championships match at about 4: The first full match to be played with the roof closed was a men's singles fourth round match between British player Andy Murray and Switzerland's Stanislas Wawrinka.

Play on Centre Court had never gone past 9. All companies undertake all the planned preventative maintenance. The roof's ten trusses each weigh tonnes, and the total weight, including non-moving parts, is 3, tonnes.

The Scoreboard on centre court is one of the more recognisable parts of Centre Court. In , dot matrix scoreboards on the same layout were installed on Wimbledon courts.

These were replaced in by full colour LED screens intended to provide full Hawk-Eye replays to the crowd in the stadium. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Centre Court Centre Court at Wimbledon, Archived from the original on 1 June Retrieved 30 March Wimbledon Compendium 21st ed.

Retrieved 12 November Retrieved 22 April

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Traditionally white, the predominant colour was gradually changed to optic yellow in the latter part of the 20th century to allow for improved visibility.

Tennis balls must conform to certain criteria for size, weight, deformation , and bounce to be approved for regulation play. Balls must weigh between Although the process of producing the balls has remained virtually unchanged for the past years, the majority of manufacturing now takes place in the Far East.

The relocation is due to cheaper labour costs and materials in the region. Advanced players improve their performance through a number of accoutrements.

Vibration dampeners may be interlaced in the proximal part of the string array for improved feel. Racket handles may be customized with absorbent or rubber-like materials to improve the players' grip.

Players often use sweat bands on their wrists to keep their hands dry and head bands or bandanas to keep the sweat out of their eyes as well.

Finally, although the game can be played in a variety of shoes, specialized tennis shoes have wide, flat soles for stability and a built-up front structure to avoid excess wear.

Tennis is played on a rectangular, flat surface. The court is 78 feet A net is stretched across the full width of the court, parallel with the baselines, dividing it into two equal ends.

It is held up by either a metal cable or cord that can be no more than 0. The modern tennis court owes its design to Major Walter Clopton Wingfield.

This template was modified in to the court design that exists today, with markings similar to Wingfield's version, but with the hourglass shape of his court changed to a rectangle.

Tennis is unusual in that it is played on a variety of surfaces. Occasionally carpet is used for indoor play, with hardwood flooring having been historically used.

Artificial turf courts can also be found. The lines that delineate the width of the court are called the baseline farthest back and the service line middle of the court.

The short mark in the center of each baseline is referred to as either the hash mark or the center mark.

The outermost lines that make up the length are called the doubles sidelines. These are the boundaries used when doubles is being played.

The lines to the inside of the doubles sidelines are the singles sidelines and are used as boundaries in singles play. The area between a doubles sideline and the nearest singles sideline is called the doubles alley, which is considered playable in doubles play.

The line that runs across the center of a player's side of the court is called the service line because the serve must be delivered into the area between the service line and the net on the receiving side.

Despite its name, this is not where a player legally stands when making a serve. The line dividing the service line in two is called the center line or center service line.

The boxes this center line creates are called the service boxes; depending on a player's position, he or she will have to hit the ball into one of these when serving.

The players or teams start on opposite sides of the net. One player is designated the server , and the opposing player is the receiver. The choice to be server or receiver in the first game and the choice of ends is decided by a coin toss before the warm-up starts.

Service alternates game by game between the two players or teams. For each point, the server starts behind the baseline, between the center mark and the sideline.

The receiver may start anywhere on their side of the net. When the receiver is ready, the server will serve , although the receiver must play to the pace of the server.

In a legal service, the ball travels over the net without touching it and into the diagonally opposite service box. If the ball hits the net but lands in the service box, this is a let or net service , which is void, and the server retakes that serve.

The player can serve any number of let services in a point and they are always treated as voids and not as faults. A fault is a serve that falls long or wide of the service box, or does not clear the net.

There is also a "foot fault", which occurs when a player's foot touches the baseline or an extension of the center mark before the ball is hit. If the second service is also a fault, the server double faults, and the receiver wins the point.

However, if the serve is in, it is considered a legal service. A legal service starts a rally , in which the players alternate hitting the ball across the net.

A legal return consists of the player or team hitting the ball before it has bounced twice or hit any fixtures except the net, provided that it still falls in the server's court.

A player or team cannot hit the ball twice in a row. The ball must travel past the net into the other players' court.

A ball that hits the net during a rally is still considered a legal return as long as it crosses into the opposite side of the court. The first player or team to fail to make a legal return loses the point.

The server then moves to the other side of the service line at the start of a new point. A game consists of a sequence of points played with the same player serving.

A game is won by the first player to have won at least four points in total and at least two points more than the opponent.

The running score of each game is described in a manner peculiar to tennis: If at least three points have been scored by each player, making the player's scores equal at 40 apiece, the score is not called out as "", but rather as " deuce ".

If at least three points have been scored by each side and a player has one more point than his opponent, the score of the game is " advantage " for the player in the lead.

During informal games, " advantage " can also be called " ad in " or " van in " when the serving player is ahead, and " ad out " or " van out " when the receiving player is ahead.

The score of a tennis game during play is always read with the serving player's score first. In tournament play, the chair umpire calls the point count e.

At the end of a game, the chair umpire also announces the winner of the game and the overall score.

A set consists of a sequence of games played with service alternating between games, ending when the count of games won meets certain criteria.

Typically, a player wins a set by winning at least six games and at least two games more than the opponent. If one player has won six games and the opponent five, an additional game is played.

If the leading player wins that game, the player wins the set 7—5. If the trailing player wins the game tying the set 6—6 a tie-break is played.

A tie-break, played under a separate set of rules, allows one player to win one more game and thus the set, to give a final set score of 7—6.

A "love" set means that the loser of the set won zero games, colloquially termed a 'jam donut' in the USA.

The final score in sets is always read with the winning player's score first, e. A match consists of a sequence of sets.

The outcome is determined through a best of three or five sets system. On the professional circuit, men play best-of-five-set matches at all four Grand Slam tournaments, Davis Cup, and the final of the Olympic Games and best-of-three-set matches at all other tournaments, while women play best-of-three-set matches at all tournaments.

The first player to win two sets in a best-of-three, or three sets in a best-of-five, wins the match.

In these cases, sets are played indefinitely until one player has a two-game lead, leading to some remarkably long matches.

In tournament play, the chair umpire announces the end of the match with the well-known phrase " Game, set, match " followed by the winning person's or team's name.

A game point occurs in tennis whenever the player who is in the lead in the game needs only one more point to win the game.

The terminology is extended to sets set point , matches match point , and even championships championship point. For example, if the player who is serving has a score of love, the player has a triple game point triple set point, etc.

Game points, set points, and match points are not part of official scoring and are not announced by the chair umpire in tournament play. A break point occurs if the receiver, not the server , has a chance to win the game with the next point.

Break points are of particular importance because serving is generally considered advantageous, with servers being expected to win games in which they are serving.

A receiver who has one score of 30—40 or advantage , two score of 15—40 or three score of love consecutive chances to win the game has break point , double break point or triple break point , respectively.

If the receiver does, in fact, win their break point, the game is awarded to the receiver, and the receiver is said to have converted their break point.

If the receiver fails to win their break point it is called a failure to convert. Winning break points, and thus the game, is also referred to as breaking serve , as the receiver has disrupted, or broken the natural advantage of the server.

If in the following game the previous server also wins a break point it is referred to as breaking back. Except where tie-breaks apply, at least one break of serve is required to win a set.

Another, however informal, tennis format is called Canadian doubles. This involves three players, with one person playing a doubles team.

The single player gets to utilize the alleys normally reserved only for a doubles team. Conversely, the doubles team does not use the alleys when executing a shot.

The scoring is the same as a regular game. This format is not sanctioned by any official body. As such, each player plays doubles and singles over the course of a match, with the singles player always serving.

Scoring styles vary, but one popular method is to assign a value of 2 points to each game, with the server taking both points if he or she holds serve and the doubles team each taking one if they break serve.

Wheelchair tennis can be played by able-bodied players as well as people who require a wheelchair for mobility. An extra bounce is permitted. This rule makes it possible to have mixed wheelchair and able-bodied matches.

It is possible for a doubles team to consist of a wheelchair player and an able-bodied player referred to as "one-up, one-down" , or for a wheelchair player to play against an able-bodied player.

In such cases, the extra bounce is permitted for the wheelchair users only. In most professional play and some amateur competition, there is an officiating head judge or chair umpire usually referred to as the umpire , who sits in a raised chair to one side of the court.

The umpire has absolute authority to make factual determinations. The umpire may be assisted by line judges, who determine whether the ball has landed within the required part of the court and who also call foot faults.

There also may be a net judge who determines whether the ball has touched the net during service. The umpire has the right to overrule a line judge or a net judge if the umpire is sure that a clear mistake has been made.

In some tournaments, line judges who would be calling the serve, were assisted by electronic sensors that beeped to indicate the serve was out. This system was called " Cyclops ".

The referee, who is usually located off the court, is the final authority about tennis rules. When called to the court by a player or team captain, the referee may overrule the umpire's decision if the tennis rules were violated question of law but may not change the umpire's decision on a question of fact.

If, however, the referee is on the court during play, the referee may overrule the umpire's decision This would only happen in Davis Cup or Fed Cup matches, not at the World Group level, when a chair umpire from a non-neutral country is in the chair.

Ball boys and girls may be employed to retrieve balls, pass them to the players, and hand players their towels.

They have no adjudicative role. In rare events e. The umpire may consider their statements when making a decision. In some leagues, especially junior leagues, players make their own calls, trusting each other to be honest.

This is the case for many school and university level matches. The referee or referee's assistant, however, can be called on court at a player's request, and the referee or assistant may change a player's call.

In unofficiated matches, a ball is out only if the player entitled to make the call is sure that the ball is out. In tennis, a junior is a player under 18 who is still legally protected by a parent or guardian.

Players on the main adult tour who are under 18 must have documents signed by a parent or guardian. These players, however, are still eligible to play in junior tournaments.

Most juniors who enter the international circuit do so by progressing through ITF, Satellite, Future, and Challenger tournaments before entering the main circuit.

The latter three circuits also have adults competing in them. In , the ITF implemented a new rankings scheme to encourage greater participation in doubles, by combining two rankings singles and doubles into one combined tally.

Juniors may earn income from tennis by participating in the Future, Satellite, or Challenger tours. Tournaments are broken up into different tiers offering different amounts of ranking points, culminating with Grade A.

Leading juniors are allowed to participate for their nation in the Junior Fed Cup and Davis Cup competitions. To succeed in tennis often means having to begin playing at a young age.

To facilitate and nurture a junior's growth in tennis, almost all tennis playing nations have developed a junior development system.

Juniors develop their play through a range of tournaments on all surfaces, accommodating all different standards of play.

Talented juniors may also receive sponsorships from governing bodies or private institutions. A tennis match is intended to be continuous.

In most cases, service is required to occur no more than 20 seconds after the end of the previous point.

Should a player be determined to be stalling repeatedly, the chair umpire may initially give a warning followed by subsequent penalties of "point", "game", and default of the match for the player who is consistently taking longer than the allowed time limit.

In the event of a rain delay, darkness or other external conditions halting play, the match is resumed at a later time, with the same score as at the time of the delay, and the players at the same end of the court when rain halted play, or at the same position north or south if play is resumed on a different court.

Balls wear out quickly in serious play and, therefore, in ATP and WTA tournaments, they are changed after every nine games with the first change occurring after only seven games, because the first set of balls is also used for the pre-match warm-up.

Continuity of the balls' condition is considered part of the game, so if a re-warm-up is required after an extended break in play usually due to rain , then the re-warm-up is done using a separate set of balls, and use of the match balls is resumed only when play resumes.

A recent rule change is to allow coaching on court on a limited basis during a match. A competent tennis player has eight basic shots in his or her repertoire: A grip is a way of holding the racket in order to hit shots during a match.

The grip affects the angle of the racket face when it hits the ball and influences the pace, spin, and placement of the shot.

Players use various grips during play, including the Continental The "Handshake Grip" , Eastern Can be either semi-eastern or full eastern. Usually used for backhands.

Most players change grips during a match depending on what shot they are hitting; for example, slice shots and serves call for a Continental grip.

A serve or, more formally, a "service" in tennis is a shot to start a point. The serve is initiated by tossing the ball into the air and hitting it usually near the apex of its trajectory into the diagonally opposite service box without touching the net.

The serve may be hit under- or overhand although underhand serving remains a rarity. There can also be a let if the server serves the ball and the receiver isn't prepared.

Experienced players strive to master the conventional overhand serve to maximize its power and placement.

The server may employ different types of serve including flat serve, topspin serve, slice serve, and kick American twist serve.

A reverse type of spin serve is hit in a manner that spins the ball opposite the natural spin of the server, the spin direction depending upon right- or left-handedness.

If the ball is spinning counterclockwise, it will curve right from the hitter's point of view and curve left if spinning clockwise. Some servers are content to use the serve simply to initiate the point; however, advanced players often try to hit a winning shot with their serve.

A winning serve that is not touched by the opponent is called an "ace". For a right-handed player, the forehand is a stroke that begins on the right side of the body, continues across the body as contact is made with the ball, and ends on the left side of the body.

There are various grips for executing the forehand, and their popularity has fluctuated over the years.

The most important ones are the continental , the eastern , the semi-western , and the western. For a number of years, the small, frail s player Bill Johnston was considered by many to have had the best forehand of all time, a stroke that he hit shoulder-high using a western grip.

Few top players used the western grip after the s, but in the latter part of the 20th century, as shot-making techniques and equipment changed radically, the western forehand made a strong comeback and is now used by many modern players.

No matter which grip is used, most forehands are generally executed with one hand holding the racket, but there have been fine players with two-handed forehands.

Players such as Monica Seles or France's Fabrice Santoro and Marion Bartoli are also notable players known for their two-handed forehands. For right-handed players, the backhand is a stroke that begins on the left side of their body, continues across their body as contact is made with the ball, and ends on the right side of their body.

It can be executed with either one hand or with both and is generally considered more difficult to master than the forehand. For most of the 20th century, the backhand was performed with one hand, using either an eastern or a continental grip.

The first notable players to use two hands were the s Australians Vivian McGrath and John Bromwich , but they were lonely exceptions.

The two-handed grip gained popularity in the s as Björn Borg , Chris Evert , Jimmy Connors , and later Mats Wilander and Marat Safin used it to great effect, and it is now used by a large number of the world's best players, including Rafael Nadal and Serena Williams.

Two hands give the player more control, while one hand can generate a slice shot, applying backspin on the ball to produce a low trajectory bounce.

Reach is also limited with the two-handed shot. The player long considered to have had the best backhand of all time, Don Budge , had a powerful one-handed stroke in the s and s that imparted topspin onto the ball.

Ken Rosewall , another player noted for his one-handed backhand, used a very accurate slice backhand through the s and s. A small number of players, notably Monica Seles , use two hands on both the backhand and forehand sides.

A volley is a shot returned to the opponent in mid-air before the ball bounces, generally performed near the net, and is usually made with a stiff-wristed punching motion to hit the ball into an open area of the opponent's court.

The half volley is made by hitting the ball on the rise just after it has bounced, also generally in the vicinity of the net, and played with the racket close to the ground.

It is an offensive shot used to take preparation time away from the opponent, as it returns the ball into the opponent's court much faster than a standard volley.

From a poor defensive position on the baseline, the lob can be used as either an offensive or defensive weapon, hitting the ball high and deep into the opponent's court to either enable the lobber to get into better defensive position or to win the point outright by hitting it over the opponent's head.

If the lob is not hit deeply enough into the other court, however, an opponent near the net may then hit an overhead smash , a hard, serve-like shot, to try to end the point.

A difficult shot in tennis is the return of an attempted lob over the backhand side of a player. When the contact point is higher than the reach of a two-handed backhand, most players will try to execute a high slice under the ball or sideways.

Fewer players attempt the backhand sky-hook or smash. Rarely, a player will go for a high topspin backhand, while themselves in the air.

A successful execution of any of these alternatives requires balance and timing, with less margin of error than the lower contact point backhands, since this shot is a break in the regular pattern of play.

If an opponent is deep in his court, a player may suddenly employ an unexpected drop shot , by softly tapping the ball just over the net so that the opponent is unable to run in fast enough to retrieve it.

Advanced players will often apply back spin to a drop shot, causing the ball to "skid" upon landing and bounce sideways, with less forward momentum toward their opponent, or even backwards towards the net, thus making it even more difficult to return.

Muscle strain is one of the most common injuries in tennis. Muscle , cartilage , nerves , bursae , ligaments and tendons may be damaged from overuse.

The repetitive use of a particular muscle without time for repair and recovery is the most common cause of injury.

Tournaments are often organized by gender and number of players. Common tournament configurations include men's singles, women's singles, and doubles, where two players play on each side of the net.

Tournaments may be organized for specific age groups, with upper age limits for youth and lower age limits for senior players. There are also tournaments for players with disabilities, such as wheelchair tennis and deaf tennis.

Most large tournaments seed players, but players may also be matched by their skill level. According to how well a person does in sanctioned play, a player is given a rating that is adjusted periodically to maintain competitive matches.

Average club players under this system would rate 3. The four Grand Slam tournaments are considered to be the most prestigious tennis events in the world.

Aside from the historical significance of these events, they also carry larger prize funds than any other tour event and are worth double the number of ranking points to the champion than in the next echelon of tournaments, the Masters men and Premier events women.

There are , more than any other professional tennis tournament. This draw is composed of 32 seeded players, other players ranked in the world's top , qualifiers, and players who receive invitations through wild cards.

Grand Slam men's tournaments have best-of-five set matches while the women play best-of-three. Grand Slam tournaments are among the small number of events that last two weeks, the others being the Indian Wells Masters and the Miami Masters.

Currently, the Grand Slam tournaments are the only tour events that have mixed doubles contests. Grand Slam tournaments are held in conjunction with wheelchair tennis tournaments and junior tennis competitions.

These tournaments also contain their own idiosyncrasies. For example, players at Wimbledon are required to wear predominantly white. Andre Agassi chose to skip Wimbledon from through citing the event's traditionalism, particularly its "predominantly white" dress code.

Each event is held annually, and a win at one of these events is worth ranking points. The name "Centre Court" derives from the location of the principal court at the All England Croquet Club's original site off Worple Road, Wimbledon — where the main court was located in the centre of all the other courts.

This changed in when the middle two courts of the middle row were combined to form a Centre Court. The initial capacity of the Centre Court is not known.

In temporary covered stands A, B and C were erected on three sides of the Centre Court and in stand A was converted into a permanent stand, to be followed in by the conversion of stands B and C.

In the three stands were joined at the corners to form a continuous structure. The stands were considerably enlarged in and in a new stand B was constructed increasing capacity by seats.

In the seating capacity was increased from 2, to 3, and this remained unchanged until the move to the new ground at Church Road.

The original centre court roof from , which partly covers the stands, has been modified several times. In , it was raised by one metre to allow the capacity to be increased by 1, A full retractable roof see below was completed in , and capacity increased to 15, by adding six rows of seats to the upper tier on the east, north, and west sides.

New media facilities, scoreboards including video, and commentary boxes were built to replace those currently in the upper tier.

New wider seats were installed and new additional stairs and lifts were added. After many years of debate by players, fans, media and officials that often occurred during rain delays, the All England Club finally decided to build a retractable roof to cover the entire court.

Building work began with the removal of the existing roof over the stands at the end of the championships. The completed retractable roof structure was ready for the Championships , being unveiled in April and tested with a capacity audience during an exhibition match on 17 May , featuring Andre Agassi , Steffi Graf , Tim Henman , and Kim Clijsters subsequently returning from retirement.

The roof takes up to 10 minutes to close, during which time play is suspended. However, the time to transfer from outside to inside play can be up to 45 minutes while the air-conditioning system acclimatises the nearly 15,seat stadium for indoor-grass competition.

The roof was closed for the first time during a competitive Championships match at about 4: The first full match to be played with the roof closed was a men's singles fourth round match between British player Andy Murray and Switzerland's Stanislas Wawrinka.

Play on Centre Court had never gone past 9. All companies undertake all the planned preventative maintenance.

The roof's ten trusses each weigh tonnes, and the total weight, including non-moving parts, is 3, tonnes. The Scoreboard on centre court is one of the more recognisable parts of Centre Court.

In , dot matrix scoreboards on the same layout were installed on Wimbledon courts. These were replaced in by full colour LED screens intended to provide full Hawk-Eye replays to the crowd in the stadium.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Centre Court Centre Court at Wimbledon, Archived from the original on 1 June

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