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Socrates's assertion that the gods had singled him out as a divine emissary seemed to provoke irritation, if not outright ridicule.
Socrates also questioned the Sophistic doctrine that arete virtue can be taught. He liked to observe that successful fathers such as the prominent military general Pericles did not produce sons of their own quality.
Socrates argued that moral excellence was more a matter of divine bequest than parental nurture. This belief may have contributed to his lack of anxiety about the future of his own sons.
Also, according to A. Long, "There should be no doubt that, despite his claim to know only that he knew nothing, Socrates had strong beliefs about the divine", and, citing Xenophon's Memorabilia , 1.
According to Xenophon, he was a teleologist who held that god arranges everything for the best. Socrates frequently says his ideas are not his own, but his teachers'.
He mentions several influences: Prodicus the rhetor and Anaxagoras the philosopher. Perhaps surprisingly, Socrates claims to have been deeply influenced by two women besides his mother: Plato's Symposium , a witch and priestess from Mantinea , taught him all he knows about eros , or love ; and that Aspasia , the mistress of Pericles , taught him the art of rhetoric.
Havelock , on the other hand, did not accept the view that Socrates's view was identical with that of Archelaus, in large part due to the reason of such anomalies and contradictions that have surfaced and "post-dated his death.
Many of the beliefs traditionally attributed to the historical Socrates have been characterized as "paradoxical" because they seem to conflict with common sense.
The following are among the so-called Socratic paradoxes: The term, " Socratic paradox " can also refer to a self-referential paradox , originating in Socrates's utterance, "what I do not know I do not think I know",  often paraphrased as " I know that I know nothing.
The statement " I know that I know nothing " is often attributed to Socrates, based on a statement in Plato's Apology.
Therefore, Socrates is claiming to know about the art of love, insofar as he knows how to ask questions. The only time he actually claimed to be wise was within Apology , in which he says he is wise "in the limited sense of having human wisdom".
On the one hand, he drew a clear line between human ignorance and ideal knowledge; on the other, Plato's Symposium Diotima's Speech and Republic Allegory of the Cave describe a method for ascending to wisdom.
In Plato's Theaetetus a , Socrates compares his treatment of the young people who come to him for philosophical advice to the way midwives treat their patients, and the way matrimonial matchmakers act.
This distinction is echoed in Xenophon's Symposium 3. For his part as a philosophical interlocutor, he leads his respondent to a clearer conception of wisdom, although he claims he is not himself a teacher Apology.
Perhaps significantly, he points out that midwives are barren due to age, and women who have never given birth are unable to become midwives; they would have no experience or knowledge of birth and would be unable to separate the worthy infants from those that should be left on the hillside to be exposed.
To judge this, the midwife must have experience and knowledge of what she is judging. Socrates believed the best way for people to live was to focus on the pursuit of virtue rather than the pursuit, for instance, of material wealth.
The idea that there are certain virtues formed a common thread in Socrates's teachings. These virtues represented the most important qualities for a person to have, foremost of which were the philosophical or intellectual virtues.
Socrates stressed that " the unexamined life is not worth living [and] ethical virtue is the only thing that matters.
It is argued that Socrates believed "ideals belong in a world only the wise man can understand",  making the philosopher the only type of person suitable to govern others.
In Plato's dialogue the Republic , Socrates openly objected to the democracy that ran Athens during his adult life. It was not only Athenian democracy: Socrates found short of ideal any government that did not conform to his presentation of a perfect regime led by philosophers, and Athenian government was far from that.
It is, however, possible that the Socrates of Plato's Republic is colored by Plato's own views. During the last years of Socrates's life, Athens was in continual flux due to political upheaval.
Democracy was at last overthrown by a junta known as the Thirty Tyrants , led by Plato's relative, Critias , who had once been a student and friend of Socrates.
The Tyrants ruled for about a year before the Athenian democracy was reinstated, at which point it declared an amnesty for all recent events.
Socrates's opposition to democracy is often denied, and the question is one of the biggest philosophical debates when trying to determine exactly what Socrates believed.
The strongest argument of those who claim Socrates did not actually believe in the idea of philosopher kings is that the view is expressed no earlier than Plato's Republic , which is widely considered one of Plato's "Middle" dialogues and not representative of the historical Socrates's views.
Furthermore, according to Plato's Apology of Socrates , an "early" dialogue, Socrates refused to pursue conventional politics; he often stated he could not look into other's matters or tell people how to live their lives when he did not yet understand how to live his own.
He believed he was a philosopher engaged in the pursuit of Truth, and did not claim to know it fully. Socrates's acceptance of his death sentence after his conviction can also be seen to support this view.
It is often claimed much of the anti-democratic leanings are from Plato, who was never able to overcome his disgust at what was done to his teacher.
In any case, it is clear Socrates thought the rule of the Thirty Tyrants was also objectionable; when called before them to assist in the arrest of a fellow Athenian, Socrates refused and narrowly escaped death before the Tyrants were overthrown.
He did, however, fulfill his duty to serve as Prytanis when a trial of a group of Generals who presided over a disastrous naval campaign were judged; even then, he maintained an uncompromising attitude, being one of those who refused to proceed in a manner not supported by the laws, despite intense pressure.
Socrates's apparent respect for democracy is one of the themes emphasized in the play Socrates on Trial by Andrew David Irvine.
Irvine argues that it was because of his loyalty to Athenian democracy that Socrates was willing to accept the verdict of his fellow citizens.
As Irvine puts it, "During a time of war and great social and intellectual upheaval, Socrates felt compelled to express his views openly, regardless of the consequences.
As a result, he is remembered today, not only for his sharp wit and high ethical standards, but also for his loyalty to the view that in a democracy the best way for a man to serve himself, his friends, and his city—even during times of war—is by being loyal to, and by speaking publicly about, the truth.
In the Dialogues of Plato, though Socrates sometimes seems to support a mystical side, discussing reincarnation and the mystery religions , this is generally attributed to Plato.
In the culmination of the philosophic path as discussed in Plato's Symposium , one comes to the Sea of Beauty or to the sight of "the beautiful itself" C ; only then can one become wise.
In the Symposium , Socrates credits his speech on the philosophic path to his teacher, the priestess Diotima , who is not even sure if Socrates is capable of reaching the highest mysteries.
In the Meno , he refers to the Eleusinian Mysteries , telling Meno he would understand Socrates's answers better if only he could stay for the initiations next week.
Further confusions result from the nature of these sources, insofar as the Platonic Dialogues are arguably the work of an artist-philosopher, whose meaning does not volunteer itself to the passive reader nor again the lifelong scholar.
According to Olympiodorus the Younger in his Life of Plato ,  Plato himself "received instruction from the writers of tragedy" before taking up the study of philosophy.
His works are, indeed, dialogues; Plato's choice of this, the medium of Sophocles, Euripides, and the fictions of theatre, may reflect the ever-interpretable nature of his writings, as he has been called a "dramatist of reason".
What is more, the first word of nearly all Plato's works is a significant term for that respective dialogue, and is used with its many connotations in mind.
Finally, the Phaedrus and the Symposium each allude to Socrates's coy delivery of philosophic truths in conversation; the Socrates of the Phaedrus goes so far as to demand such dissembling and mystery in all writing.
These indirect methods may fail to satisfy some readers. It was this sign that prevented Socrates from entering into politics.
In the Phaedrus , we are told Socrates considered this to be a form of "divine madness", the sort of insanity that is a gift from the gods and gives us poetry , mysticism , love , and even philosophy itself.
Today, such a voice would be classified under the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as a command hallucination.
Socrates practiced and advocated divination. He was prominently lampooned in Aristophanes 's comedy The Clouds , produced when Socrates was in his mid-forties; he said at his trial according to Plato that the laughter of the theater was a harder task to answer than the arguments of his accusers.
In the play, Socrates is ridiculed for his dirtiness, which is associated with the Laconizing fad; also in plays by Callias , Eupolis , and Telecleides.
Other comic poets who lampooned Socrates include Mnesimachus and Ameipsias. In all of these, Socrates and the Sophists were criticized for "the moral dangers inherent in contemporary thought and literature".
Plato, Xenophon, and Aristotle are the main sources for the historical Socrates; however, Xenophon and Plato were students of Socrates, and they may idealize him; however, they wrote the only extended descriptions of Socrates that have come down to us in their complete form.
Aristotle refers frequently, but in passing, to Socrates in his writings. Almost all of Plato's works center on Socrates.
However, Plato's later works appear to be more his own philosophy put into the mouth of his mentor. The Socratic Dialogues are a series of dialogues written by Plato and Xenophon in the form of discussions between Socrates and other persons of his time, or as discussions between Socrates's followers over his concepts.
Plato's Phaedo is an example of this latter category. Although his Apology is a monologue delivered by Socrates, it is usually grouped with the Dialogues.
The Apology professes to be a record of the actual speech Socrates delivered in his own defense at the trial.
In the Athenian jury system, an "apology" is composed of three parts: Plato generally does not place his own ideas in the mouth of a specific speaker; he lets ideas emerge via the Socratic Method , under the guidance of Socrates.
Most of the dialogues present Socrates applying this method to some extent, but nowhere as completely as in the Euthyphro.
In this dialogue, Socrates and Euthyphro go through several iterations of refining the answer to Socrates's question, " What is the pious, and what the impious?
In Plato's Dialogues, learning appears as a process of remembering. The soul , before its incarnation in the body, was in the realm of Ideas very similar to the Platonic "Forms".
There, it saw things the way they truly are, rather than the pale shadows or copies we experience on earth. By a process of questioning, the soul can be brought to remember the ideas in their pure form, thus bringing wisdom.
Especially for Plato's writings referring to Socrates, it is not always clear which ideas brought forward by Socrates or his friends actually belonged to Socrates and which of these may have been new additions or elaborations by Plato—this is known as the Socratic Problem.
Generally, the early works of Plato are considered to be close to the spirit of Socrates, whereas the later works—including Phaedo and Republic —are considered to be possibly products of Plato's elaborations.
Immediately, the students of Socrates set to work both on exercising their perceptions of his teachings in politics and also on developing many new philosophical schools of thought.
Some of Athens' controversial and anti-democratic tyrants were contemporary or posthumous students of Socrates including Alcibiades and Critias.
While "Socrates dealt with moral matters and took no notice at all of nature in general",  in his Dialogues, Plato would emphasize mathematics with metaphysical overtones mirroring that of Pythagoras —the former who would dominate Western thought well into the Renaissance.
Aristotle himself was as much of a philosopher as he was a scientist with extensive work in the fields of biology and physics. Socratic thought which challenged conventions, especially in stressing a simplistic way of living, became divorced from Plato's more detached and philosophical pursuits.
This idea was inherited by one of Socrates's older students, Antisthenes , who became the originator of another philosophy in the years after Socrates's death: While some of the later contributions of Socrates to Hellenistic Era culture and philosophy as well as the Roman Era have been lost to time, his teachings began a resurgence in both medieval Europe and the Islamic Middle East alongside those of Aristotle and Stoicism.
Socrates is mentioned in the dialogue Kuzari by Jewish philosopher and rabbi Yehuda Halevi in which a Jew instructs the Khazar king about Judaism.
Socrates influence grew in Western Europe during the fourteenth century as Plato's dialogues were made available in Latin by Marsilio Ficino and Xenophon's Socratic writings were translated by Basilios Bessarion.
To this day, different versions of the Socratic method are still used in classroom and law school discourse to expose underlying issues in both subject and the speaker.
Over the past century, numerous plays about Socrates have also focused on Socrates's life and influence. One of the most recent has been Socrates on Trial , a play based on Aristophanes's Clouds and Plato's Apology , Crito , and Phaedo , all adapted for modern performance.
Evaluation of and reaction to Socrates has been undertaken by both historians and philosophers from the time of his death to the present day with a multitude of conclusions and perspectives.
Although he was not directly prosecuted for his connection to Critias, leader of the Spartan-backed Thirty Tyrants , and "showed considerable personal courage in refusing to submit to [them]", he was seen by some as a figure who mentored oligarchs who became abusive tyrants, and undermined Athenian democracy.
The Sophistic movement that he railed at in life survived him, but by the 3rd century BC, was rapidly overtaken by the many philosophical schools of thought that Socrates influenced.
Socrates's death is considered iconic and his status as a martyr of philosophy overshadows most contemporary and posthumous criticism.
However, Xenophon mentions Socrates's "arrogance" and that he was "an expert in the art of primping" or "self-presentation".
Some modern scholarship holds that, with so much of his own thought obscured and possibly altered by Plato, it is impossible to gain a clear picture of Socrates amid all the contradictory evidence.
That both Cynicism and Stoicism , which carried heavy influence from Socratic thought, were unlike or even contrary to Platonism further illustrates this.
The ambiguity and lack of reliability serves as the modern basis of criticism—that it is nearly impossible to know the real Socrates.
Some controversy also exists about Socrates's attitude towards homosexuality  and as to whether or not he believed in the Olympian gods , was monotheistic, or held some other religious viewpoint.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the classical Greek philosopher. For other uses of Socrates, see Socrates disambiguation.
For the Attic orator, see Isocrates. Prodicus , Anaxagoras , Archelaus. Virtually all subsequent Western philosophy , but Plato and Xenophon in particular.
Plato from Raphael 's The School of Athens — Retrieved 20 November Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary.
The Cambridge Companion to Greek Tragedy. Retrieved 19 November Reason and Religion in Socratic Philosophy. But the year of Socrates's birth is probably only an inference from Plato [who] has Socrates casually describe himself as having lived seventy years.
Socrates, Ironist and Moral Philosopher. Kahn - Ethics - p. Fictions of a Philosopher. Socrates, of course, is the only of these philosophers who didn't write anything Interviews from the Harvard Review of Philosophy p.
The historical Socrates undoubtedly existed, but he did not write anything Socrates is especially pure because he does not write. Blitz, Ann Ward - Socrates: Reason or Unreason as the Foundation of European Identity p.
As Socrates did not write anything and assigned to the living word and to dialogue with his followers all of his thought, The Schools of the Imperial Age p.
Socrates explains to Meno: This is why Socrates did not write anything; he had nothing to teach that could be fixed in writing New Ideas for an Old Relationship p.
They achieved renown precisely because they did not write at all. The vice of graphorrhoea was frequently contrasted with the virtue of such ancient philosophers as Pythagoras, Aristarchus, Favorinus and Socrates, who did not write anything Ethics for Criminal Justice Professionals.
Fear and Loathing in Ancient Athens: Religion and Politics During the Peloponnesian War. The Rise and Fall of the Socratic Problem pp.
In addition to Plato and Xenophon , each of the following is credited by some source as having added to the genre: It is unlikely Plato was the first in this field Vlastos, p.
The Cambridge Companion to Socrates p. An Interpretation of Plato's Phaedo p. The Philosophical Use of a Literary Form p.
A Guide for the Perplexed p. A Companion to Socrates pp. Spellbinder of the Greeks, who made them precise in language. Sneerer trained by rhetoroticians, sub-Attic ironist.
Celenza , Angelo Poliziano's Lamia: Woodruff - Reason and Religion in Socratic Philosophy p. Drama in Greek Sicily and South Italy p.
King , One Hundred Philosophers p. Gill - The Death of Socrates p. A Brief History - p. Brisson , Griechische Biographie in hellenistischer Zeit: Akten des internationalen Kongresses vom Juli in Würzburg - Aristoxenus: His Evidence on Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans.
Mediterranean Expulsion Rituals and Pauline Soteriology p. The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature reprint, 3rd ed.
Translated by Fowler, Harold N. Sellars, , Simon the Shoemaker and the Problem of Socrates. Classical Philology 98, — Intellectual Critics of Popular Rule p.
Papers from a Conference Held in Liverpool in July p. Larcher's Notes on Herodotus: The School of History: Athens in the Age of Socrates p.
Law, Legislation and Liberty, Volume 3: The Political Order of a Free People. The Laws of Plato. Taylor Walton and Maberly. The Death of Socrates.
Frantic violence, became the attribute of manliness; cautious plotting, a justifiable means of self-defense. The advocate of extreme measures was always trustworthy; his opponent a man to be suspected.
Socrates, unlike the Sophists , did believe that knowledge was possible, but believed that the first step to knowledge was recognition of one's ignorance.
Guthrie writes, "[Socrates] was accustomed to say that he did not himself know anything, and that the only way in which he was wiser than other men was that he was conscious of his own ignorance, while they were not.
The essence of the Socratic method is to convince the interlocutor that whereas he thought he knew something, in fact he does not.
Socrates generally applied his method of examination to concepts that seem to lack any concrete definition; e.
Such an examination challenged the implicit moral beliefs of the interlocutors, bringing out inadequacies and inconsistencies in their beliefs, and usually resulting in aporia.
In view of such inadequacies, Socrates himself professed his ignorance, but others still claimed to have knowledge.
Socrates believed that his awareness of his ignorance made him wiser than those who, though ignorant, still claimed knowledge. While this belief seems paradoxical at first glance, it in fact allowed Socrates to discover his own errors where others might assume they were correct.
This claim was known by the anecdote of the Delphic oracular pronouncement that Socrates was the wisest of all men.
Or, rather, that no man was wiser than Socrates. Socrates used this claim of wisdom as the basis of his moral exhortation.
Accordingly, he claimed that the chief goodness consists in the caring of the soul concerned with moral truth and moral understanding, that "wealth does not bring goodness, but goodness brings wealth and every other blessing, both to the individual and to the state", and that "life without examination [dialogue] is not worth living".
It is with this in mind that the Socratic method is employed. The motive for the modern usage of this method and Socrates' use are not necessarily equivalent.
Socrates rarely used the method to actually develop consistent theories, instead using myth to explain them. Instead of arriving at answers, the method was used to break down the theories we hold, to go "beyond" the axioms and postulates we take for granted.
Therefore, myth and the Socratic method are not meant by Plato to be incompatible; they have different purposes, and are often described as the "left hand" and "right hand" paths to good and wisdom.
A Socratic Circle also known as a Socratic Seminar is a pedagogical approach based on the Socratic method and uses a dialogic approach to understand information in a text.
Its systematic procedure is used to examine a text through questions and answers founded on the beliefs that all new knowledge is connected to prior knowledge, that all thinking comes from asking questions, and that asking one question should lead to asking further questions.
This approach is based on the belief that participants seek and gain deeper understanding of concepts in the text through thoughtful dialogue rather than memorizing information that has been provided for them.
The inner circle focuses on exploring and analysing the text through the act of questioning and answering. During this phase, the outer circle remains silent.
Students in the outer circle are much like scientific observers watching and listening to the conversation of the inner circle.
When the text has been fully discussed and the inner circle is finished talking, the outer circle provides feedback on the dialogue that took place.
This process alternates with the inner circle students going to the outer circle for the next meeting and vice versa.
The length of this process varies depending on the text used for the discussion. The teacher may decide to alternate groups within one meeting, or they may alternate at each separate meeting.
The most significant difference between this activity and most typical classroom activities involves the role of the teacher.
In Socratic Circles the students lead the discussion and questioning. The teacher's role is to ensure the discussion advances regardless of the particular direction the discussion takes.
Teachers use Socratic Circles in different ways. The structure it takes may look different in each classroom.
While this is not an exhaustive list, teachers may use one of the following structures to administer Socratic Seminar:.
The seminars encourage students to work together, creating meaning from the text and to stay away from trying to find a correct interpretation.
The emphasis is on critical and creative thinking. A Socratic Circle text is a tangible document that creates a thought-provoking discussion. Furthermore, the seminar text enables the participants to create a level playing field — ensuring that the dialogical tone within the classroom remains consistent and pure to the subject or topic at hand.
Ideas and values - The text must introduce ideas and values that are complex and difficult to summarize. Complexity and challenge - The text must be rich in ideas and complexity  and open to interpretation.
Relevance to participants and curriculum - An effective text has identifiable themes that are recognizable and pertinent to the lives of the participants.
Ambiguity - The text must be approachable from a variety of different perspectives, including perspectives that seem mutually exclusive, thus provoking critical thinking and raising important questions.
The absence of right and wrong answers promotes a variety of discussion and encourages individual contributions. Subject area, which can draw from print or non-print artifacts.
As examples, language arts can be approached through poems, history through written or oral historical speeches, science through policies on environmental issues, math through mathematical proofs, health through nutrition labels, and physical education through fitness guidelines.
Socratic Circles are based upon the interaction of peers. The focus is to explore multiple perspectives on a given issue or topic.
Socratic questioning is used to help students apply the activity to their learning. The pedagogy of Socratic questions is open-ended, focusing on broad, general ideas rather than specific, factual information.
Socratic circles generally start with an open-ended question proposed either by the leader or by another participant.
The leader keeps the topic focused by asking a variety of questions about the text itself, as well as questions to help clarify positions when arguments become confused.
The leader also seeks to coax reluctant participants into the discussion, and to limit contributions from those who tend to dominate.
The leader guides participants to deepen, clarify, and paraphrase, and to synthesize a variety of different views.
The participants share the responsibility with the leader to maintain the quality of the Socratic circle. They listen actively in order to respond effectively to what others have contributed.
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