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Chewing gum

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chewing gum

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Chewing Gum Video

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The virginal Tracey, who was raised in a strictly religious Tower Hamlets flat, is ready to realize her potential. And the first step is having sex.

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East Dane Designer Men's Fashion. Shopbop Designer Fashion Brands. The water activity of chewing gum ranges from 0.

In lollipops with a gum center, water migration can lead to the end of the product's shelf life, causing the exterior hard candy shell to soften and the interior gum center to harden.

The physical and chemical properties of chewing gum impact all aspects of this product, from manufacturing to sensory perception during mastication.

The polymers that make up the main component of chewing gum base are hydrophobic. Because the polymers of gum repel water, the water-based saliva system in a consumer's mouth will dissolve the sugars and flavorings in chewing gum, but not the gum base itself.

This allows for gum to be chewed for a long period of time without breaking down in the mouth like conventional foods.

Chewing gum can be classified as a product containing a liquid phase and a crystalline phase, providing gum with its characteristic balance of plastic and elastic properties.

While hydrophobic polymers beneficially repel water and contribute to chewiness, they also detrimentally attract oil.

The stickiness of gum results from this hydrophobic nature, as gum can form bonds and stick when it makes contact with oily surfaces [2] such as sidewalks, skin, hair, or the sole of one's shoe.

To make matters worse, unsticking the gum is a challenge because the long polymers of the gum base stretch, rather than break.

The sticky characteristic of gum may be problematic during processing if the gum sticks to any machinery or packaging materials during processing, impeding the flow of product.

Aside from ensuring that the machinery is free from lipid-based residues, this issue can be combatted by the conditioning and coating of gum toward the end of the process.

By adding either a powder or a coating to the exterior of the gum product, the hydrophobic gum base binds to the added substance instead of various surfaces with which it may come in contact.

Bubblegum bubbles are formed when the tension and elasticity of gum polymers acts against the constant and equally dispersed pressure of air being directed into the gum bolus.

Bubble gum bubbles are circular because pressure from the focused air being directed into the bolus acts equally on all of the interior surfaces of the gum cud, uniformly pushing outward on all surfaces as the polymers extend.

As the bubble expands, the polymers of the gum base stretch and the surface of the bubble begins to thin.

When the force of the air being blown into the bubble exceeds the force that the polymers can withstand, the polymers overextend and the bubble pops.

Due to the elastic attributes of chewing gum, the deflated bubble recoils and the wad of gum is ready to continue being chewed.

Gum bases with higher molecular weights are typically used in gums intended to meet bubble-forming expectations.

Higher molecular weight gum bases include longer polymers that are able to stretch further, and thus are able to form larger bubbles that retain their shape for a longer time.

Flavor delivery is extended throughout the mastication process by timed release of different flavor components due to the physical-chemical properties of many of chewing gum's ingredients.

Entropy is a key player in the process of flavor delivery; because some gum components are more soluble in saliva than gum base and because over time flavor components desire to increase their entropy by becoming dispersed in the less ordered system of the mouth than in the more ordered system of the gum bolus, flavor delivery occurs.

During the first three to four minutes of the chew, bulking agents such as sugar or sorbitol and maltitol have the highest solubility and, therefore, are chewed out first.

During the next phase of the chew in the four to six minute range, intense sweeteners and some acids are dissolved and chewed out.

These components last slightly longer than the bulking agents because they have a slightly lower solubility. Next, encapsulated flavors are released during either minute into the chew or after 30—45 minutes.

Encapsulated flavors remain incorporated in the gum base longer because the molecules that they are encapsulated in are more easily held within the gum matrix.

Finally, during the last phase of the chew, softeners such as corn syrup and glycerin and other textural modifiers are dissolved, resulting in a firming up of the gum and the end of the chew.

Studies have shown that gum flavor is perceived better in the presence of sweetener. A cooling sensation is achieved through the chemical phenomenon of the negative enthalpy of dissolution that occurs with bulk sweeteners, such as the sugar alcohols.

The enthalpy of dissolution refers to the overall amount of heat that is absorbed or released in the dissolving process.

Because the bulk sweeteners absorb heat as they dissolve and have a negative enthalpy, they yield a cooling sensation as they are dissolved in a consumer's saliva.

A review about the cognitive advantages of chewing gum by Onyper et al. However the improvements were only evident when chewing took place prior to cognitive testing.

The precise mechanism by which gum chewing improves cognitive functioning is however not well understood. The researchers did also note that chewing-induced arousal could be masked by the distracting nature of chewing itself, which they named "dual-process theory", which in turn could explain some of the contradictory findings by previous studies.

They also noticed the similarity between mild physical exercise such as pedaling a stationary bike and chewing gum. It has been demonstrated that mild physical exercise leads to little cognitive impairment during the physical task accompanied by enhanced cognitive functioning afterwards.

Furthermore, the researchers noted that no improvement could be found for verbal fluency, which is in accordance with previous studies.

This finding suggests that the effect of chewing gum is domain specific. The cognitive improvements after a period of chewing gum have been demonstrated to last for 15—20 minutes and decline afterwards.

Sugar-free gum sweetened with xylitol has been shown to reduce cavities and plaque. Chewing gum also increases saliva production.

Food and sucrose have a demineralizing effect upon enamel that has been reduced by adding calcium lactate to food.

Other studies [43] indicated that the caries preventive effect of chewing sugar-free gum is related to the chewing process itself rather than being an effect of gum sweeteners or additives, such as polyols and carbamide.

Gum chewing is regarded as a helpful way to cure halitosis bad breath. Chewing gum not only helps to add freshness to breath but can aid in removing food particles and bacteria associated with bad breath from teeth.

It does this by stimulating saliva, which essentially washes out the mouth. Chewing sugar-free gum for 20 minutes after a meal helps prevent tooth decay, according to the American Dental Association, because the act of chewing the sugar-free gum produces saliva to wash away bacteria, which protects teeth.

The pH of saliva is neutral, which having a pH of 7 allows it to remineralize tooth enamel. Falling below a pH of 5.

Masumoto et al. Several randomized controlled studies have investigated the use of chewing gum in reducing the duration of post-operative ileus following abdominal and specifically gastrointestinal surgery.

A systematic review of these suggests gum chewing, as a form of " sham feeding ", is a useful treatment therapy in open abdominal or pelvic surgery, although the benefit is less clear when laparoscopic surgical techniques are used.

Chewing gum after a colon surgery helps the patient recover sooner. If the patient chews gum for fifteen minutes for at least four times per day, it will reduce their recovery time by a day and a half.

Gum also gets digestive juices flowing and is considered "sham feeding". Chewing gum is used as a novel approach for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease GERD.

One hypothesis is that chewing gum stimulates the production of more bicarbonate-containing saliva and increases the rate of swallowing.

After the saliva is swallowed, it neutralizes acid in the esophagus. In effect, chewing gum exaggerates one of the normal processes that neutralize acid in the esophagus.

It stimulates the stomach to secrete acid and the pancreas to produce digestive enzymes that aren't required.

Controversy arises as to health concerns surrounding the questionable classification of gum as food, particularly in regard to some alternative uses for gum base ingredients.

According to the U. Polyethylene, one of the most popular components of gum base, belongs to a common group of plastics and is used in products from plastic bags to hula hoops.

Polyvinyl acetate is a sticky polymer found in white glue. Butyl rubber is typically used in caulking and the lining of car tires, in addition to its role in gum base.

Paraffin wax is a byproduct of refined petroleum. Concern has arisen about the possible carcinogenicity of the vinyl acetate acetic acid ethenyl ester used by some manufacturers in their gum bases.

Currently, the ingredient can be hidden in the catch-all term "gum base". The Canadian government at one point classified the ingredient as a "potentially high hazard substance.

Various myths hold that swallowed gum will remain in a human's stomach for up to seven years, as it is not digestible.

According to several medical opinions, there seems to be little truth behind the tale. In most cases, swallowed gum will pass through the system as quickly as any other food.

There have been cases where swallowing gum has resulted in complications in young children requiring medical attention.

A paper describes a four-year-old boy being referred with a two-year history of constipation. The boy was found to have "always swallowed his gum after chewing five to seven pieces each day", being given the gum as a reward for good behavior, and the build-up resulted in a solid mass which could not leave the body.

Adults have choked to death on chewing gum in rare cases. A report describes a year-old woman who fell on the stairs while chewing gum.

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